Calling the Pak Nuke Bluff


    So this above tweet landed up on my TL yesterday. Prompted me to share some thoughts on the recent spate of statements from Pakistan, threatening pre-emptive use of tactical nukes against Indian forces even as they might be in their barracks / staging areas. Here goes.

    Firstly regarding the preferred delivery mode – the Nasr missile. With a diameter of just about 30cm,I find it laughable that Pakistan actually has a working bomb of such dimensions. I may be wrong out here, but would be willing to hedge my bets on this account due to the fact that they’ve not tested since 1998, and are working at best, on unproven designs.

    Secondly, despite a stated first use policy, they’ve been silent on what constitutes their red lines. In case of a stand-off that might play out on lines of Op Parakram, wherein strike elements actually moved in close to borders, a pre-emptive use by a panicked field commander might lead to a bloody war instead.

    Thirdly, in case a Pakistan justifies a pre-emptive strike on account of a threat in being of an Indian attack, can the same premise – an imminent nuclear strike, as proclaimed by Pak – not be used as a premise for a ‘pre-emptive retaliatory strike’ by India, as part of its NFU doctrine?

    Fourthly, if Pakistan Army truly believes that even a dozen sub kiloton nukes can actually stop the might of Indian strike forces, they are going to be in for a rude shock. They know it too. And if they don’t, well explains it quite well in this video below

    That brings us to the next question – ‘What Next?’

    Stated Indian Nuclear Doctrine doesn’t differentiate between tactical nukes or any other type of nukes. Massive retaliation is the response that will visit them soon thereafter. Given a military machine which has such strong survival instincts that it is not beyond sacrificing its own pimps in AfPak & elsewhere, or even disown its own soldiers in Kargil, to expect Pak Army to risk its very existence is a fallacy.

    Lastly and most importantly, is the reqmt of making the sponsors of Pak nuclear pgme pay in case nukes gifted by them to Pak (Ref Lop Nor, May 1983 – Para 14 here: ). Here’s a screenshot from that, even though the entire report is a highly recommended read:-




    Nothing fancy, but just an ‘innocent’ statement to this effect by one of the many semi-govt ‘loudmouths’ in reply to such statements from Pak would surely raise hackles in a LOT of world capitals. Given blatant nuclear proliferation in arming their cat’s paw, they too deserve ‘some’ anxiety atleast, given that India is forced to live with a nuclear armed mad man at its doors.

    Talking about ‘Cat’s Paws’, had put out a BLOG post some days back about China engaging Indian security apparatus by its hired lackeys. May have a look.

    But coming back to the topic at hand, once we have atleast a half dozen or so Arihant class boats prowling the seas with an assured second/third strike package, perhaps then the nuke benefactors will feel some bit of ‘anxiety’ that I talked about earlier.

    Bottomline – Nuclear sabre rattling is just like riding a tiger. Nukes are NOT to be used in a war, unless it is the ‘very last’ war this world sees. Don’t do it. Tomorrow a rabid, brainwashed population may not leave you with a way out. Then you will have no where to hide.


(Talking about ‘brainwashed population’, THIS three part blog series chronicles some interesting facts).


Thoughts post Uri attack, Sep 2016


    On the first anniversary of the , replugging some thoughts I tweeted last year, a day after the attack. Glad to note that many things turned out as hoped!

    Here goes..

    Firstly, what happened and how it happened is well known by now. Will not dwell upon that. One thing that can be safely said without fear of contradiction is that the attack in itself was nothing new. Terror attacks on army camps have happened before at a number of locations, including Uri (Remember Lt Col Sankalp Kumar?). What makes this attack ‘different’ is the sheer numbers of fatal and non fatal casualties. Let me go out on a limb here. I say this magnitude of damage wasn’t anticipated by the terror handlers in Rawalpindi. It is this which is a potential game changer.

    I bet there are anxious khakis in Pindi waiting for how India will react now, esp given the PM’s Independence Day speech in which he raised a ‘sensitive’ issue, Balochistan, and the days thereafter wherein there seems a concerted campaign to name and shame Pakistan for its state sponsored terror. IMO, the govt will HAVE to react to this provocation ‘differently’ than similar ones in past. There seems no other way. When and how that retaliation happens needs to be seen.

    There already exists a precedent wherein after the massive casualties in Manipur last year, the Govt took a few days to prepare and retaliated with a massive blow in the form of the Special Forces raid in Myanmar. I still remember some Paki handles tweeting something like ‘Pakistan is not Myanmar’ or such likes.

    Will come to that in a while.

    Right now, the issue at hand is whether the Govt will react or not. I guess that is a call for the Govt of the day to take. What follows is the options I see are available. In a nutshell, let us say there are 2 options: military and non military.

    Talking about the non military ones first, these may take form of a string of dossiers as done after 26/11, or a speech in the UN, or not resuming the already suspended dialogue process for a bit longer. All have been tried time and again, with the same result -failure. The one single reason is that we want others to do what is essentially our own job. No one in the world has any love lost for any Indian lives lost. Not until we put a heavy price on each and every Indian life ourselves. THAT is the bottom-line.

    This is not to say that diplomacy doesn’t matter. It does. Just as it did in 1971 and Kargil. But at those times, it was backed with the full might of the Indian military machine. THAT is what clicked then and not in 26/11 – the military option. This current ‘lull’ after Kargil is perhaps the longest we’ve been without a military confrontation with Pak.


    What this seems to have led to is a mindset which, originally defensive, has become even more so. Covert retaliation et al seem to be the answer of choice lately, but what we are forgetting is that we are playing into the enemy’s strength by doing this, even as our strength – Military Might – remains idle and unacknowledged.

    Yes, I use the phrase ‘Military Might’ because it is exactly what it is when facing Pakistan. For all the issues of equipment etc flogged daily on social media, fact is that even in its present state, the Indian Army will prevail over the Khakis across the border with ease. With ease indeed, given the overwhelming superiority in the air that will come to bear in sync with the grunts on ground who must already be raring to have a go. Now add to this the relative strengths of the navies and you’ll understand why Paki Army have tried to keep the levels of provocation below the perceived Indian threshold – a ‘war avoidance’ strategy, if you will.

    They know that for all the bombast and swag, they don’t stand a chance. And given what they’ve consistently fed their population, if push comes to shove, their nakedness will be exposed to the very population that they have ruled for practically all of last 69 years.

    Coming back to the current day. Retribution HAS to follow, there is no doubt about that. However, IMO, it should also be SEEN as having been visited upon the perpetrators. And the perpetrator is not a Hafiz Saeed / Masood Azhar. It is the Khakis sitting in Rawalpindi that planned it, and those immediately across the LC from Uri that executed it. I wouldn’t mind a bit if they are flattened with some help from the heavens above. Killing the terrorists that came in isn’t enough. They are in numbers unimaginable, a practically endless stream. Pain needs to be visited upon those who control the tap – Remember the taped conversation of Musharraf during Kargil – ‘Inki tooti hamare haath mein hai’?

    They don’t have the b@lls to fight man to man, and sadly, we oblige them by being reactive and restricted to own side of the borders. It is time to change this state of affairs.

    I understand that this chain of thoughts, or rant, call it what you will, is asking for an emotive response when our forte has been a rational one. Even in case of Myanmar, it took a few days to put things in place before the raid went in, but the point is, being rational hasn’t had much effect wrt Pakistan. It takes 2 hands to clap, with just one hand, all you can do is slap the other fellow. I feel it is time to change the rules a bit. Let it be India that is ‘irrational’ for a change, that is if you consider a legitimate military response to this provocation, irrational. Mind you, the Indian soldier is down, but not out. He still has a LOT of fight in him, despite the losses. Instead of losing fine young men merely on this side of the border, let the enemy too get an opportunity for the same.

    Unlike what some said yesterday, being a soldier is not a suicidal job. Yes, you may lose your life, but that is a known risk. It is deaths like the ones that came visiting to the boys in Uri yesterday that hurt. In the long run, a military confrontation is the ONLY way to arrive at a lasting solution, given that it is the Paki Army that runs the show, regardless of the democratically elected govt in power.

    As for the idiotic calls for people to people contacts and Pakis artists etc, remember, they make money in India off you and me, go back and pay taxes in Pakistan, enabling their govt to foment terror back in India. I tweeted my thoughts on that some days ago. MUST have a look and let me know if I am wrong, here’s the LINK to that.

    To sum up, status quo as of now is they provoke, we react in a predictable manner. I say, break this pattern. Let us be the irrational ones for a change. Let us bring our strengths to bear, instead of playing to the enemy’s strengths.


(One year later, today I am somewhat glad to note the way things have turned out to be. Surgical Strikes across the LoC were exactly the kind of ‘public’ response one had hoped for and the recent shifting of gears with respect to operations inside the Valley. Fact remains, however, that the Khakis across the border STILL remain comfortable in Pindi. Hope that changes too. Soon)


China & India – Together Ahead?


Came across THIS tweet above some time yesterday and got thinking .. Can we really be ‘CHINDIA’?

After all our ‘history’, the question sure seems interesting!

Of course, the fact that I recently re-started this book does help a bit!


Just sharing some thoughts, still somewhat disjointed. But here goes!

I’ll set the tone by paraphrasing a Hindi saying. ‘There can NEVER be two swords in a single scabbard’. I started tweeting on 29 Jan 12. THIS tweet below was amongst my first few, on 12 Feb 2012.


The one thing about the Cold War was that the two major powers were separated by an ocean or two, and a number of buffer states in Europe. However, another ‘not so major’ power, China shared a land border with the USSR and another ‘not so major power’, India. And guess what happened across those borders in 1962, 1967 and 1969!

All this while the major powers were fighting each other too, though not directly. Proxies did the dirty job, even where atleast ONE of the superpowers was involved – Cuba, Vietnam, Afghanistan, Korea .. the works. But USSR & US troops never faced each other directly.

Flash back to 1962 and 1967. What happened on the battlefields is mentioned here in THIS Blog Post from some days ago. The one thing that the PLA (hopefully) learnt that the Indian soldier was no pushover. A fact that was only reinforced in 1987 at Sumdorong Chu when they were stared down, just as it happened 3 decades later at Doklam. The PLA knew that a shooting match with the IA will be VERY costly.

However, something happened in 1963 that gave the Chinese, an army for hire .. a fanatic army at that, with one single ambition – to show ‘Hindu’ India its place. And it came at not much cost. Heck, they even kowtowed, offering a strategic piece of land too, the Shaksgam Valley!

The Pakis had found their ‘Higher than Himalaya’, ‘Deeper than Deepest Ocean’, ‘Sweeter Than Honey’ (the list of a$$ licking platitudes continues to grow still) benefactor. A benefactor that knew no scruples. All it needed was a (pin)prick that could keep a potential rival – India – engaged away from the LAC.

And the Pakis revelled in this ‘job’. They were simply ‘Made of It’!


The Hans too did their bit. The Chinese too made a big show of ‘helping’ their ‘friends’. In 1965, they made a HUGE show that fizzled out.


In 1971, Tikka Khan’s rapist army in East Pakistan was fed on false hope till the very end that the Chinese are coming! None came, though. Their job was done – Indian Army was fighting AWAY from the LAC! But things somewhat changed thereafter. With Bhutto promising a 1000yr war with India & pledging to even eat grass in his quest for nukes, the Han overlords were only too happy to oblige!

Such was the benevolence that they even invited the then Paki Foreign Minister to ‘witness’ a nuclear test at Lop Nor in May 1983. Mind you, this was NOT a case of nuke proliferation. Or was it? Will talk about it at a later day.

But SURPRISE .. the Pakis soon ‘hinted’ about the ‘nuclear option’ during Brasstacks just a few years later!!

Mere coincidence? Your call! (This LINK might help)

But the topic I intend to cover here is not nuke proliferation. Instead I wish to talk about Missile proliferation from China to Pakistan. Indian IGMDP was launched in 1983. With the experience of a decent space pgme atleast 2 decades old, the missile pgme saw the Prithvi launched in 1988 & the Agni in 1989.

Suddenly, out of the blue, the Pakis ‘magically’ came up with a missile pgme of their own! The Hatf 1 magically appeared in 1989, tested and inducted! Soon followed by Shaheen, Ghauri, Babar series of missiles!

This from a country that STILL does not manufacture even a decent car of its own. But it’s military hardware production is supposedly all indigenous! Magic, no? Yup. Magic indeed, If u discount the fact that Chinese entities were in fact, under sanctions at about the same time for exporting M-9 & M-11 missiles to Pakistan. The reports available online are very candid with details. Here’s an EXAMPLE

China being under international pressure, the proliferation in the second half of the 90s was ‘outsourced’ to Pyongyang! So much so that Benazir Bhutto herself acted as a conduit while on one of her short, fauj approved stints as the Paki PM! Of course, the ‘pinnacle’ was reached in 1999, when North Korea was caught shipping an entire assembly blueprint + hardware of missile assembly line, when the Captain of the ship docked at Kandla Port looking to make an easy buck on the side! (LINK: On North Korean Freighter, a Hidden Missile Factory)

Another giveaway is the apparently 100% success rate of Paki missile tests!

A test of a ‘new’ missile out of the blue and the same is declared an instant success, with the missile being inducted into the Pak Army inventory! Yes, ppl are simply amazed at this level of technological ‘advancement’ of KRL!

Unless of course, failed missiles end up in Iran! (LINK)

100% successes are possible only because failures have been outsourced to China/North Korea.

Bottomline: China has played a smart game by outsourcing the fight against its principle regional adversary to an all to willing proxy, something that we either cannot, or refuse to see.


(Photo: Pakistani and Chinese Border Guards – Hand in Hand!)

Chanakya’s soul mAust surely be mightily agitated at seeing our passive acquiescence at this wanton disregard to our national security. And what have we to show for it?


Things are slowly changing lately, but the opportunities lost are simply mind boggling. Vietnam still awaits the Brahmos, even after many years of first asking for it. Prithvis are not even being considered for export!

Today, even Bangalore is in the range of Chinese missiles based out of Pakistan, and here we are, still abiding by the rules like ‘good boys’! This when China blatantly disregarded each and every treaty / commitment to play merry hell with our security! Prithvis / Brahmos on Vietnamese / Taiwanese soil will do for us exactly what China has achieved – force your adversary to look behind his back.

So yes, coming back to where it all started from. Chindia ain’t gonna happen!

Not till they keep arming proxies.

Not till they continue to be on our borders by occupying Tibet.

India and China is a civilizational conflict. Period.

It stayed dormant till the Hans came calling in Lhasa in 1950. It will continue to be active till such time they continue to be in occupation of Tibet. Like I said in the beginning – ‘Ek Myaan Mein Do Talwar’


#Siachen Demilitarization: Some Thoughts

BCt-KMNCYAEp_Ad.jpg large.jpg

    So Sh Shyam Saran has written a book that has again started a cacophony of opinions on demilitarization of !

    Sharing some thoughts of my own, to add to that cacophony

    Firstly, the battlefield is NOT Siachen. It is the Saltoro Ridge further to the West of the glacier. This is a fact which needs to be put on record.

    That said, the genesis of the conflict in is worth studying. Nitin Gokhale’s book on the same is an excellent read. In short, the Shimla Accord delineated the LoC till Point NJ 9842 and, assuming areas further North to be too inhospitable, left the issue by saying that the LoC would thereafter run ‘northwards along the glaciers’.

    Things stayed calm until the late 70s, when Pakistan started granting clearance to mountaineering / trekking expeditions in on its own. This was accompanied by ‘Cartographic Aggression’, wherein Pak maps suddenly started showing their territory ahead of NJ 9842 with a straight, north easterly line joining the point with the Karakoram Pass.

    Then in the early 80s, own agencies informed the govt of the day that Pakis were busy shopping for high altitude gear, with an intention to occupy Saltoro Ridge and enforce their claim line. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian Army to move in, and the army flew in a bunch of tough Kumaonis to occupy strategic heights / passes on the Saltoro Ridge. The timing was perfect, it pre-empted the planned Paki operation by mere weeks.

    Pakis moved in soon, to occupy some unheld areas on the Saltoro, and trying to evict the Indian army.

    Bloody clashes followed before the positions of both sides stabilized. The Indian army was in possession of almost all strategic and dominating heights on the Saltoro, less one sore spot – The Quaid Post – a post so important that the Pakis named it after their father of the nation, Jinnah. And then they lost it to a diminutive Khalsa, Bana Singh, in 1987!

    A certain Brigadier Pervez Musharraf of the SSG was tasked to retake it. He threw in his best, and lost them all. Bana post continues to fly the Tricolour to this day.

    Fast forward to the previous decade. Weather related casualties were, and continue to be at an all time low. Most of the men out of the 800+ as is being touted by the usual suspects, were lost in the first two decades or so. Of late, the Indian Army is comfortably dominating the battlefield. The Pakis know that dislodging the Indians from this area is impossible. Thus began the chant of ‘global warming’, ‘pollution’ etc, ironically, from a country that gives a damn about its own forest cover. The dream of the previous Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh to convert into a ‘Mountain of Peace’ was replied to by the Army with a single statement – ‘Let Pakistan authenticate its and our positions on a map jointly signed by both nations.’

    This was a pre-requisite of the army which basically told its govt that once we withdraw, if the Pakis come and sit on the Saltoro, then don’t ask us to recapture it again, because we will be unable to do so.

    They were right, Kargil had happened less than a decade ago, this DESPITE the LoC mutually agreed to in 1972! Bottomline – You cannot trust Pakistan to stick to its word. (Apparently, Shyam Saran’s book brings in some more details). But regardless of that,I still wonder why the eff have Pakis steadfastly refused to exchange authenticated maps of their and our positions on Saltoro, if that is what they had indeed agreed to as is being hinted?

Is it because we don’t know where they are placed?

Or is it because Pak Army has continuously lied to its own people that it is THEY who dominate Indians in the battlefield?

Some points to ponder upon before the idiotic (IMO) calls for demilitarization.

Bottomline: Let us not let the sacrifice of hundreds of our best go waste because someone somewhere would rather trust the Pakis on their word instead of their past record.

In the end, just one question from me to the worthies about . Would be glad if someone can answer me :-



NDTV – A history of ‘blunders’

Folks, here’s a post on the ‘motivated’ journalism by . First noticed a distinct ’tilt’ some years ago. Chronicled some, missed .some. For all I know, I might be reading a bit too much into it all, but still thought of archiving my thoughts here on my blog. Here goes!

‘Alleged’ is a beautiful word, used with alleged ‘care’ to ensure the intended meaning is not lost on those who ‘matter’!


This is not my tweet, but quite a reputation that have built


Then there is the issue of calling Kashmiri terrorists anything but that ‘T’ word. Happens far too many times to be a mere coincidence


I guess we should just be grateful to for not calling them ‘Freedom Fighters’. (atleast not thus far)



But we are getting ahead of ourselves. Getting back to ‘alleged’ .. apparently is allegedly the BEST at use of the word ‘alleged’!



God bless the person who came up with this word, ‘Alleged’ .. a godsend for the good folks at ! It’s allegedly a way of life there!



Sometimes one wonders if the keyboards at offices have a special key to type in ‘allegedly’ in one touch!



Then there is the ‘small’ issue of territorial integrity of the Union of India. Who needs PoK / Aksai Chin, no?



And just in case you missed it, will ‘remind’ you. Over and over again! So very considerate of them, allegedly! (Map behind anchor)


Apparently, KNOWS what Indian Map looks like. They even did a pgme on that! Yet keep using wrong maps. I wonder why!



Let alone maps showing Indian territories occupied by neighbours, even Indian lands within our administrative control are fair game!


(IMO, the above isn’t a mere editorial error, but in perfect sync with PRC view that Sikkim still doesn’t belong to India, 2003 be damned)

Of course, then there is the issue of the ONLY Indian (some ppl might use ‘allegedly’ b4 that) channel that calls it ‘India Controlled’



And that too isn’t a one off ‘incident’. Apparently there has been atleast 1 more instance of such ‘editorial oversight’

India Held Kashmir.PNG


Of course, there is the small matter of Al Jazeera getting banned for depicting wrong maps, while other go away scot free!



Moving on to editorial ‘oversights’. He is ‘a’ VK Singh. Of course, won’t mention his rank which he carries even post retirement!

a VK Singh.PNG


THIS I can believe to be a genuine editorial gaffe .. atleast it says ‘Indian Air Force’ on the ALLEGED chopper!



Then there is another editorial ‘oversight’ in that they choose to use photo of Assam Rifles troops for a report on Indian Army



In this instance of alleged editorial error, no one can better the comment of right below the alleged tweet!



Damn, I missed this one – another tweet putting Indian territory up for negotiation. Yup, ‘disputed’ is the official GOI line, no?

C8jPYDSXkAEKX2I.jpg large.jpg


Report on Myanmar Raid. Using a picture of an IA chopper in Kashmir in 2009, possibly a flight carrying mortal remains of Maj Suresh Suri, KC (P)

Capture (4).PNG


This was tweeted in immediate aftermath of the 2014 General Elections. Coincidentally, this theme was VERY popular among Paki tweeple too!


And this one too



But THIS YouTube Video remains an all time favourite No one can accuse of biased reporting. Heck, they question the Supreme Court too! (Do watch. I Insist!)

Of course, the bread and butter – FACTUAL Reporting – too is sometimes up for ‘tempering’ (NOT tampering, mind you), when deemed fit



Given the above, can one really blame this handle for tweeting what he did? does have a certain ‘reputation’ in some circles



Then they give out IAF plans, even if dated. Info which should never have been released as a matter of propriety.


(LINK to above report)

The above was a scoop indeed. A scoop worthy of prosecution under the Official Secrets Act, though


I would definitely want to know how came to know what was written in the Squadron Diary. Espionage, anyone?


Sorry, apologies for using the word ‘espionage’ when the correct word is ‘EXCLUSIVE‘ So what if it is IAF war plans we’re talking about



More inappropriate words, atleast in my opinion



Far too many ‘coincidences’ in terms of ‘editorial oversights’, no? Or is there a method in this ‘madness’? I’ll leave it for you to decide.


Well folks, this is it for the time being, allegedly!



Dharmveer Sambhaji Maharaj



         Sambhaji Bhonsle was the once estranged elder son of Shivaji who ascended to the Maratha throne after his death, in Jul 1680. This was in the middle of the Mughal – Maratha war. Sambhaji carried on his father’s war with renewed vigour. and zeal. In the process, Sambhaji inflicted serious defeats on Aurangzeb’s army in a cycle of death and destruction. In 1689, however, his fortunes took a turn for the worse. Sambhaji was at Sangameshwar, unaware of the nearness of his enemies & with a scant force around him. After a sudden raid under Muqarrab Khan, Mughals reached the place & after a bitter fight succeeded in capturing him and his Prime Minister, Kavi Kalash.

        Sambhaji was brought to Aurangzeb’s court on a donkey, with the local population mocking him. When they were brought face to face with Aurangzeb, the latter offered to let Sambhaji live if he surrendered all the Maratha forts, turned over all his hidden treasures and disclosed the names of all the Mughal officers who had helped him. Sambhaji refused, and instead sang the praises of Mahadev (Lord Shiva).

Aurangzeb ordered Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash to be tortured to death.

        What followed was two weeks of inhuman torture of the Maratha King, Sambhaji and his Prime Minister, Kavi Kalash. Offers of conversion to Islam too were refused by both. The brutal torture continued. It involved plucking out their eyes and tongue and pulling out their nails. The later part involved removing their skin. On March 11, 1689, Sambhaji was finally killed, reportedly by tearing him apart from the front and back with “Wagh Nakhe” (Tiger Claws, a kind of weapon), and was beheaded with an axe.


        This brought an end to the two weeks of torture which included gouging of eyes and cutting of tongues of both, Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash. They were put to death at Tulapur on the banks of Bhima River. An arch has been constructed at the site as a memorial.


        After the killing, Sambhaji’s severed head was paraded throughout the empire, taken to Delhi and hung on a gate there. All accounts referring to days of horrific torture and agony tell that they borne with astonishing firmness and stoicism by Sambhaji and his Brahmin minister Kavi Kalash. Even the purported offers of clemency on the public display of submission and/or an escape from the horror by conversion to Islam had little effect on the proud Maratha king.

        After being blinded & his tongue cut from his mouth, he surprisingly with great difficulty was still able to communicate and to continue to offer defiance to his oppressors. The memory of his inspirational father must have been close to Sambhaji in the last days – given just sufficient time to rest between the tortures and removal of limbs. After two weeks of horrendous and unthinkable pain the still defiant King was executed. His head was cut off and placed in public display around the cities and towns of Maharashtra as a warning. But it didn’t have the desired effect. Far from it, in fact.

        The news of the execution of the son of the much revered and loved King Shivaji send a wave of horror and revulsion throughout the land. His brother Rajaram took the crown and continued the struggle against the Mughals. For his stout defence of Hindu Dharm and refusal to convert to Islam, even at the cost of his life, Sambhaji was named by his people, Dharmveer.


        Ironically, some 310 years later, a tale of similar, brutal torture would be re-written by Aurangzeb’s ‘self styled’ descendants, the Pakistanis, when their army captured and killed Lt Saurabh Kalia & five of his men in similar fashion.

The more things change, the more they remain the same.

God Bless the souls of the countless who fell to this fanaticism in our lands.